Lokale ecologische kennis van bodem- en waterfuncties
bij boeren in Sumberjaya, Sumatra, Indonesië.

Farmers’ local ecological knowledge of soil and watershed
functions in Sumberjaya, Sumatra, Indonesia


Wim Schalenbourg


Scriptie voorgelegd aan de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en
Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen
voor het behalen van de graad van
Bio-Ingenieur in de Landbouwkunde.

Academiejaar: 2003-2004

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven

Promotor: Erik Mathijs
Departement Agrotechniek en -economie
Afdeling Landbouw- en Milieueconomie
Bart Muys
Departement Landbeheer
Laboratorium voor Bos, Natuur en Landschap


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“Istilahnya kalau kepala kita ini gundul, maaf kalau anak ini istilahnya [ke kepala penulis skripsi ini], coba sekarang air satu gelas, nggak mungkin air satu gelas ke luar langsung dari rambut, tapi kalau gundul air satu gelas ini langsung mengalir, cuman basah sebentar. Gunung juga begitu, bila mana gundul langsung aja, tapi bila ada tanam tumbuhnya, kayu-kayu yang ini, nggak.”


Pak Ili, August 23, 2002.


“For example if you compare our bold head to for example the head of this child [pointing towards the head of the author of this thesis], if you pour one glass of water on him, the water won’t come all at once out of his hair, but if you pour one glass of water on a bold head, it will flow away immediately and the head will only be wet for a short time. It’s the same thing for a mountain, if it is bold, then the water will flow down directly, but when there are a lot of plants and trees, it won’t.”






List of used abbreviations


1. Introduction

    1.1 Short review of the history of the Sumberjaya watershed

    1.2 Hypothesis of ICRAF research

    1.3 Research objectives


2. Local Ecological Knowledge: a review of the literature

    2.1 Defining local ecologic knowledge

    2.2 Renewed attention for LEK

    2.3 Local versus scientific knowledge

    2.4 Methodological challenges and problems

    2.5 Commercial exploitation of LEK


3. Materials and Methods

    3.1 Research strategy design

    3.2 Knowledge elicitation

    3.3 Knowledge base development and analysis

    3.4 Testing the knowledge base

    3.5 Comparisons with other knowledge systems

    3.6 Time schedule


4. Results

    4.1 Knowledge base

    4.2 Forest

    4.2.1 Forest clearing

        4.2.2 Fertility of cleared soils

        4.2.3 Forest functions

        4.2.4 Other stakeholders

    4.3 Flooding

        4.3.1 Causes and effects of flooding rivers

        4.3.2 Flooding of paddy rice fields

        4.3.3 Other stakeholders

    4.4 Water quality

        4.4.1 Water turbidity

        4.4.2 Water quality for consumption

        4.4.3 Other stakeholders

    4.5 Erosion

        4.5.1 Causes of soil erosion

        4.5.2 Effects of soil erosion

        4.5.3 Landslides

        4.5.4 Other stakeholders

    4.6 Cultivation techniques

        4.6.1 Terracing

        4.6.2 Furrows and composting holes (infiltration pits)

        4.6.3 Shade trees

        4.6.4 Weeds

        4.6.5 Other stakeholders

    4.7 Landscape elements

        4.7.1 Coffee gardens

        4.7.2 Riparian vegetation

        4.7.3 Paddy field as filter element

        4.7.4 Other stakeholders

    4.8 Ethnopedology and land suitability

        4.8.1 Principles of ethnopedology

        4.8.2 Ethnopedology in Sumberjaya


5. Analysis

    5.1 Origin of knowledge

    5.2 Validation of Knowledge Base results

    5.3 Discrepancy between theory and practice

    5.4 Knowledge held by other Stakeholders


6. Conclusions




Nederlandstalige samenvatting

1. Inleiding

2. Materiaal en Methoden

3. Resultaten

4. Analyse

5. Conclusies




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